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徘徊在都市里的深山老狼

一条深山老狼在喧闹的都市里孑然独行久了,倍感身心疲惫,总想回到幽静的深山里去!

 
 
 

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中学英语教师课堂反馈的功能(张强)  

2009-03-16 22:28:20|  分类: 他山之石 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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摘  要:反馈通常指为了改进、提高学生的学习而对其某一学习任务完成情况发回的信息。反馈可以较有效地帮助学生完成超出他们实际水平的认知任务,以引导学生达到更高的潜在认知水平。合理使用反馈的情感功能可以为学生提供情感上的支持,从而促使学生以更加积极自觉的态度投入到学习过程中去。

关键词:英语教师;课堂反馈;英语教学

中图分类号:G623.31    文献标识码:A    文章编号:1009-2536(2008)06-0015-06

 

一、引 言

在教学环境中,反馈通常指为了改进、提高学生的学习而对其某一学习任务完成情况发回的信息。反馈可分为评价性反馈与话语性反馈。前者的功能主要是评估语言形式,达成信息与知识的理解;后者则是为了寻求意义交流,引导和保持学生的注意。从学生的角度来说,他们都希望能得到教师正面的反馈,对学习者面子不构成威胁的反馈方法往往最容易被接受。教师在反馈时应尽量采用间接反馈来取代直白的消极反馈,以保持学生良好的心理状态。近年来,国内外语界对于教师话语的研究越来越多。然而,侧重于反馈用语功能的专门研究却很是匮乏(胥国红,2006)。为此,本文拟从认知与情感两方面对反馈的功能进行解读,旨在抛砖引玉,以激发更多的有价值的思考。

 

认知就是指通过心理活动(如形成概念、知觉、判断或想象)获取知识与信息。在课堂教学过程中,反馈的认知功能可以较有效地帮助学生完成超出他们实际水平的认知任务,以引导学生达到更高的潜在认知水平。

(一)降低任务难度

教学中经常会因为任务难度变化而出现师生交互受阻的情况。为了打破学生的沉寂与尴尬场面,教师需要使用合理的反馈来缓和与消除课堂的不流畅,同时保护学生思维的积极性。

教学案例:

教学片段1

T: What’s the national animal of Canada?

S: It’s beaver.

T: Beaver. Very good. Do you know beaver?

S: (Smiling) I don’t know.

T: So it is beaver. Beaver, in Chinese, it means…

S: 海狸.

T: Very good. Now let’s look at some pictures of it.

教学片段2

T: Let’s try to find the main characters mentioned in the story. What are they?

Ss: (no response)

T: Ok, then how many characters are mentioned in the story?

Ss: Four.

T: Good, let’s look at them one by one. Now first Larry Belmont, who was he?

S1: A man who worked for a robot company.

T: Yes, okay, sit down please. Now Claire?

S2: A wife.

T: Yes, more information? Whose wife?

S2: Larry’s wife.

T: Good. Larry’s wife, a housewife. Then Tony?

S3: The robot.

T: Okay, now Gladys Claffern?

S4: One of the richest and most powerful women around.

T: Yes, then what’s the relationship between Claire and Gragys?

Ss: (no response)

T: So why do you think Gradys appeared in the story? You know, Gradys is rich and elegant, right? How did Claire feel about Gradys?

Ss: Envy (her).

T: Yes, so Gradys is a woman that Claire envies.

教学片段1中,教师在学生正确作出了回答以后,要求学生进一步进行解释。显然,这时任务的难度超出了这位学生的知识水平。这时,教师转而让学生用中文加以解释,降低了难度,从而使课堂交流得以延续。在片段2中,教师起初要求学生快速找出故事的主要人物并判断其身份。之后,教师很快根据学生的反馈调整了问题的难度,并采用了诱导的方式引导学生接近正确的信息。特别是,教师在问“what’s the relationship between Claire and Gragys?”时,学生再次没有反应。此时,教师及时将之分解成几个导向性问题,最终让学生通过思考接近问题的答案。可见,反馈并不是一味的教师给出。有时,教师要根据学生的反馈及时调整教学难度,以使课堂教学处于一种良性的互动状态。

(二)标注关键特征

课堂信息的呈现具有相对繁杂性,教师需要标注一些关键信息,通过重复等方式来帮助学生引起注意。对关键信息的强调能较好地引导学生的思维流向,从而益于教学目标的达成。

教学案例:

T: If you like traveling, and before we go to travel, what do you suggest we should do?

S1: Make a plan.

T: Make a plan, yeah. That is to say, We have to make some preparation, do you think so?

S1: Yeah.

T: Very good.

T: While you are in traveling, so what do you suggest we should do?

S2: Make a telephone call.

T: Make a telephone call to your family members to tell them that you are safe and enjoy yourself. Yes, anything else?

S2: (smiling)

T: Ok, very good. Sit down, please.

T: What’s your opinion? While you are in traveling, what do you suggest we should do?

S3: We can write a diary.

T: We can write a diary, yes, write a travel journal. Thank you.

T: And then…, Anything else?

S3: Take some photos.

T: Take some photos and enjoy yourself. Very good, very good.

T: After traveling, what do you suggest we should do?

S4: I should have a good rest.

T: Have a good rest, because you are tired after a long travel.

S4: Yeah.

T: Very good. And sometimes in order to keep your travel in your memory, so you will write a diary, write a travel journal, do you think so?

S4: Yeah.

T: Ok, very good.

上述教学案例中,教师通过三个主要问题引导学生思考“在旅行前、旅行过程中以及旅行结束后分别应该做些什么?”。对于每位学生的回答,该教师用到了大量的重复或变向重复(斜体部分),起到了“标注关键特征”的作用,通过重复帮助学生加深对信息的刺激。如:在学生回答了旅行前应“Make a plan”、旅行中应“Make a telephone call”以及旅行后应“Write a diary”时,教师分别对其重复并拓展。通过强调,使学生对旅行各个阶段要做的事有一个宏观的了解,进而为学生更好地理解阅读材料提供背景框架。

(三)示范

教师通过完成某个步骤或利用学生的回答来展现理想的解决方式,以起到示范正确答案的作用。需要注意的是,教师在示范前往往会给予学生言语的肯定或借助非言语加以间接的否定。

教学案例:

T: What’s the difference between a robot (like Tony) and a human being? Now first let’s start from physical characteristics.

S1: Facial expressions never change.

T: Yes, then could Tony react very fast?

S1: Yeah.

T: How do you know? Which part of the text gives us the relative information? Can you show us?

S1: Yes. The 8th paragraph on page 11 says “once Claire fell off a ladder, and even though Tony was in the next room, he managed to catch her in time”, it’s impossible for a human to do that. So we can learn a robot has quicker reactions.

T: You really did a good job, thank you.

T: Then, would you please think about the mental differences? Can Tony think for itself?

S2: Yes.

T: Yes?

S3: It can’t think for itself.

T: All right, I think a robot is just programmed by human beings, right? Actually, it can only do things instructed by humans. That is to say, a robot can’t think for itself.

案例中,当第一个学生顺利地给出一个答案后,教师给予肯定反馈并加以引导式提问,学生再次回答正确后,教师便要求其示范该问题的答案应当到哪里去找,实际上是在借助该学生的思维过程来“示范问题的解决方案(斜体部分)”。同时,考虑到学生的“面子”,大部分情况下教师并不给予否定的回答,而是用沉默、皱眉、夸张地瞪大眼睛等面部表情,用升调重复学生的回答,或用一些诸如“oh, well, eh, hum”等小品词来进行消极反馈。如上述案例中,教师升调重复学生的回答,加上皱眉的表情,对学生的回答作出间接的反馈,再对原因进行解释,起到了示范正确答案的作用。另外,我们也注意到反馈的示范功能既可以由教师提供,也可以借助学生来达成。

 三、情感功能

情感是指对外界刺激肯定或否定的心理反映,如喜欢、恐惧、厌恶等。合理使用反馈的情感功能可以为学生提供情感上的支持,从而促使学生以更加积极自觉的态度投入到学习过程中去。

(一)激发学生的学习兴趣

兴趣能有效地激起学生思维的参与,而巧妙的情景设置与富有感染力的话语总能让学生兴趣盎然。教师注重教学思路严谨的同时,更要注意激发学生对任务的兴趣。

教学案例:

    教学片段1

T: How do you think of smoking?

S1: Smoking is bad for our health.

T: Yes, so you must hate smoking, right?

S1: That’s right, I always try to talk my father out of smoking. But it doesn’t work. Anyway, some of the teachers also love smoking.

T: Oh, what a pity, but just as you’ve noticed, There are many smokers around us, including our parents and teachers. So would you like to help them get rid of smoking?

Ss: Yes.

T: All right, today we will deal with this problem together. Here my friend James is also addicted to cigarettes, and he find it difficult to get rid of it. Just now, he received an E-mail from his granddad. Are you curious about the advice?

Ss: Yes.

T: Okay, let’s check it.

    教学片段2

T: At the beginning of this class, let’s play a jigsaw puzzle game together. Do you know “jigsaw puzzle”?

Ss: (no response)

T: I believe most of you must have played this kind of game in your childhood, right?

Ss: Yes.

T: So today I have prepared five pieces for you, and I’d like to invite one of you to complete it onto the blackboard. Now, have a try. Any volunteer? I choose this handsome boy. Please come on, I know you can do it, let’s give him some courage.

Ss: (clapping)

S1: (to the blackboard)

T: Complete it, Please. Maybe starting with this piece is much easier, right? No, you break it. Then, no?

Ss: (happily laughing)

S1: (busy putting together)

T: No? Yeah, this one? Yeah, good. No? yes, then two pieces left, it’s easy. OK, thank you. Well done!

Ss: (clapping)

T: And this girl have turned out to be a national flag, right? And this flag is called the maple leaf flag. It suggests today our topic will be “which country? ”

Ss: Canada.

教学片段1中,教师要求学生发表对吸烟的看法,教师在学生作答后又采用了一个非倒装式的提问加上一个附加疑问套语(如本例中的“…right?”)试图确认学生的观点,结果引出了学生更为丰富的话语。针对学生提出的“周围仍然有许多人包括一些父母与老师都在吸烟”的现状,教师对其给予肯定的同时,提出“would you like to help them get rid of smoking?”,以引起学生的注意。随后,教师通过设置情景“Here my friend James is also addicted to cigarettes, and he find it difficult to get rid of it. Just now, he received an E-mail from his granddad. Are you curious about the advice?”,有效激发学习者对任务的兴趣。片段2中,教师巧妙地运用了拼图游戏导入话题。值得注意的是,教师不论在选择学生时,还是在学生完成拼图的过程中,都始终以其丰富而且具有激励性的话语帮助学生完成任务。同时,也有效地吸引了其他同学参与到这一过程,共同分享这名学生的成功与挫败。

(二)维持交流

交流的双方就好比是在打乒乓球,一来一回展开攻势。一旦一方出现“问题”,交流便无法得以继续。而在课堂交互中,教师维持交流的同时还需要激发与引导交流的走向。适时有效的反馈能使学生保持学习的动力,继续追求目标。

教学案例:

教学片段1(王欣欣,2007)

T: What’s your favorite day of the week? Why?

S1: I like Tuesday, because on Tuesday I can watch Outlook on TV.

T: Me, too. I’m very happy to hear that you like English so much. Do you watch Outlook, too? It’s a very good English programme. I hope everyone likes it.

S2: I like Saturday and Sunday because I can read books, see films and have a picnic with my family. I can have a rest at home.

T: Yes, we should relax ourselves. When we rest well, we can work well. All work no play makes Jack a dull boy.

S3: I like Sunday because I can have a good rest. I like Monday because I see my classmates again. I like Tuesday… I like everyday.

T: What do you think of him?

Ss: He sees the positive side of things. So he must be very happy everyday.

T: Yes. He is an optimistic boy. If we see the positive side of everything, we will be happy all the time, too. Thank you. You are an influential boy. You can influence every one of us.

教学片段2

T: Did anyone travel anywhere in your summer holiday?

S: Yes, I did.

T: Oh, did you? Where did you go?

S: My village.

T: Great. What was the journey like?

S: I beg your pardon?

T: How was the journey?

S: …….

T: That’s interesting. And what happened when you arrived there?

在片段1中,教师提出问题"What’s your favorite day of the week? Why?" 后,让学生根据自己的实际情况作真实的交际。教师不仅对学生的回答表现出极大的兴趣,给予他们高度的肯定与赞扬,而且还使学生之间进行互动;不仅实现语言交际,而且教师与发言学生的对话也影响着其他学生,使他们很快地学会聆听别人的表述,积极思考,表达出更多更好的语言与思想。同样地,我们可以看到在教学片段2中,教师与学生在维持相互作用的同时,还发展了相互作用。特别值得注意的是,当教师提出“What was the journey like?”时,学生给出了“I beg your pardon?”表明自己没有听清楚教师的问题。随后,教师改变表达对其进行重述,扫除了交际的障碍。可见,教师的反馈不仅包括感叹、称赞或评论等终止性话语的反馈,还应有激发另一个交际的开始的反馈,即反馈应同时与下一个交际密切相关。这样,就能使教师和学生有更多的相互交流,学生也有机会用较多的语言灵活地表达自己的思想。

 (三)减少消极情绪

不同形式的反馈用语对学生造成的心理影响是不同的。一些较为直接的否定用语容易使学生产生消极的心理,从而挫伤学生的积极性。相反地,一些积极的反馈能减轻学生在解决任务过程中产生的压力与沮丧,进而激发更多的交流(张强,2007)。

教学案例:

教学片段1

S: My father buyed a camera for my birthday.

T: Oh, that’s very nice, your father bought it for you, did he?

S: Yes.

T: Where did he buy it?

S: He buyed it in Japan.

T: Oh, he bought it in Japan for you. Well, it’s very nice. When did he buy it?

S: He bought it five days ago.

教学片段2

T: Can someone please give a definition of robot? Or what is a robot?

S: Robot is a machine designed to do jobs that are usually performed by humans.

T: Do not read it from your textbook, use your own words.

S: (no response)

T: Just say something, okay?

S: Robot is a machine… (in a weak voice)

T: Ok, sit down.

上述教学片段分别从正反两方面呈现了教师反馈对于学生情绪的影响。片段1中,教师没有直接指出学生表达中的语法错误(学生将buyed误当成了buy的一般过去式),而是采用了重铸的方式。教师通过向学生传递正确的语言形式,让学生在与老师的交流过程中不知不觉地纠正错误。为了不对学生的“面子”造成伤害,教师住住会借助重铸、要求澄清、诱导、重复等间接的方式进行反馈。片段2中,学生想必是进行了课前预习,回答教师提问时能采用课本中的表达。但教师却未看到这可贵的一面,予以积极保护,而是对学生的回答作出了消极的反馈—"Do not read it from your textbook, use your own words",这不可避免地会伤害到学生的自尊心,挫伤其用英语表达的积极性。如果教师能够在内心深处对学生多一些平等与爱护,他/她就可能先给予其肯定再提问"That’s very good, but would you please try to use your own words?",这样的反馈不仅使学生感到教师平易近人,而且师生之间还易于产生进一步的目的语交流。

 四、结语

本文通过“案例呈现”与“方法分析”从认知与情感两方面对中学英语课堂教师反馈用语的功能进行了尝试性解读。在很多的情况下,提问与反馈是相辅相成的。因此,在具体课堂教学的预设、调控与生成过程中,我们需要将两者加以融合,利用其互补功能实现课堂的和谐互动。

 

参考文献:

王欣欣. 2007. 教师反馈—英语课堂和谐互动的关键 [J]. 山东师范大学外国语学院学报(基础英语教育),(1): 57-58.

胥国红. 2006. 大学英语教师课堂反馈的功能研究 [J]. 西安外国语学院学报,(4): 63-67.

张强. 2007. 初中英语任务型课堂中教师话语功能特征的分析 [J]. 中小学外语教学(中学篇),(7): 17-21.

  

作者单位:浙江省平湖中学

注:本文发表于《山东师范大学外国语学院》(基础英语教育)2008年第6期(PP.15-20)

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